Optical Devices and Molecular Imaging for Cervical Neoplasia

Project Publications
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  • Shadeo A, Chari R, Lonergan KM, Pusic A, Miller D, Ehlen T, Van Niekerk D, Matisic J, Richards-Kortum R, Follen M, Guillaud M, Lam WL, MacAulay C. Up regulation in gene expression of chromatin remodelling factors in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. BMC Genomics 2008;9:64.  (pdf)

  • Redden Weber C, Schwarz RA, Atkinson EN, Cox DD, Macaulay C, Follen M, Richards-Kortum R. Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer. J Biomed Opt 2008;13:064016.  (pdf)

  • Pruitt SL, Parker PA, Follen M, Basen-Engquist K. Communicating colposcopy results: what do patients and providers discuss? J Low Genit Tract Dis 2008;12:95-102.  (pdf)

  • Park SY, Follen M, Milbourne A, Rhodes H, Malpica A, MacKinnon N, MacAulay C, Markey MK, Richards-Kortum R. Automated image analysis of digital colposcopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia. J Biomed Opt 2008;13:014029.  (pdf)

  • Cox DD, Lee JS. Pointwise Testing with Functional Data Using the Westfall-Young Randomization Method. Biometrika 2008;95:621–34.  (pdf)

  • Cardenas-Turanzas M, Nogueras-Gonzalez GM, Scheurer ME, Adler-Storthz K, Benedet JL, Beck JR, Follen M, Cantor SB. The performance of human papillomavirus high-risk DNA testing in the screening and diagnostic settings. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:2865-71.  (pdf)

  • Cardenas-Turanzas M, Follen M, Nogueras-Gonzalez GM, Benedet JL, Beck JR, Cantor SB. The accuracy of the Papanicolaou smear in the screening and diagnostic settings. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2008;12:269-75.  (pdf)

  • Cantor SB, Cardenas-Turanzas M, Cox DD, Atkinson EN, Nogueras-Gonzalez GM, Beck JR, Follen M, Benedet JL. Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:7-14.  (pdf)
  • Van Niekerk D, Guillaud M, Matisic J, Benedet JL, Freeberg JA, Follen M, MacAulay C. p16 and MIB1 improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: methodological issues in a report of 447 biopsies with consensus diagnosis and HPV HCII testing. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S233-40.  (pdf)

  • Thiberville C, Guillaud M, Lockwood W, Lam W, Follen M, MacAulay C. Multi-scale system biology applied to cervical inter-epithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S72-82.  (pdf)

  • Shinn E, Basen-Engquist K, Crain B, Follen M. A theory-aided dissemination strategy for emerging technologies in cervical cancer screening. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S35-9.  (pdf)

  • Shadeo A, Chari R, Vatcher G, Campbell J, Lonergan KM, Matisic J, van Niekerk D, Ehlen T, Miller D, Follen M, Lam WL, MacAulay C. Comprehensive serial analysis of gene expression of the cervical transcriptome. BMC Genomics 2007;8:142.  (pdf)

  • Scheurer ME, Guillaud M, Tortolero-Luna G, McAulay C, Follen M, Adler-Storthz K. Human papillomavirus-related cellular changes measured by cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy and chromatin texture. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2007;72:324-31.  (pdf)

  • Scheurer ME, Guillaud M, Tortolero-Luna G, Follen M, Adler-Storthz K. Epidemiologic modeling of cervical dysplasia with molecular and cytopathological markers. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S163-9.  (pdf)

  • Scheurer ME, Dillon LM, Chen Z, Follen M, Adler-Storthz K. Absolute quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the measurement of human papillomavirus E7 mRNA in cervical cytobrush specimens. Infect Agent Cancer 2007;2:8.  (pdf)

  • Saldivar JS, Wu X, Follen M, Gershenson D. Nucleotide excision repair pathway review I: implications in ovarian cancer and platinum sensitivity. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S56-71.  (pdf)

  • Saldivar JS, Lu KH, Liang D, Gu J, Huang M, Vlastos AT, Follen M, Wu X. Moving toward individualized therapy based on NER polymorphisms that predict platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S223-9.  (pdf)

  • Roblyer D, Richards-Kortum R, Park SY, Adewole I, Follen M. Objective screening for cervical cancer in developing nations: lessons from Nigeria. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S94-7.  (pdf)

  • Richards-Kortum R, Buckley D, Schwarz RA, Atkinson EN, Follen M. A translational bioengineering course provides substantial gains in civic scientific literacy. Ann Biomed Eng 2007;35:1324-32.  (pdf)

  • Pikkula BM, Shuhatovich O, Price RL, Serachitopol DM, Follen M, McKinnon N, MacAulay C, Richards-Kortum R, Lee JS, Atkinson EN, Cox DD. Instrumentation as a source of variability in the application of fluorescence spectroscopic devices for detecting cervical neoplasia. J Biomed Opt 2007;12:034014.  (pdf)

  • Pham B, Earle N, Rabel K, Follen M, Scheurer ME. Maximizing the diversity of participants in a phase II clinical trial of optical technologies to detect cervical neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S208-14.  (pdf)

  • Okafor C, Follen M, Adewole I. Opportunities to improve health systems in Africa. A comparative overview of healthcare challenges for stakeholders and strategic planners. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S86-93.  (pdf)

  • Nakappan S, Park SY, Serachitopol D, Price R, Cardeno M, Au S, Mackinnon N, MacAulay C, Follen M, Pikkula BM. Methodology of a real-time quality control for the multispectral digital colposcope (MDC). Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S215-22.  (pdf)

  • Miller D, Okolo CA, Mirabal Y, Guillaud M, Arulogun OS, Oladepo O, Crain B, Follen M, Adewole IF. Knowledge dissemination and evaluation in a cervical cancer screening implementation program in Nigeria. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S196-207.  (pdf)

  • Lee JS, Follen M, MacAulay C, Pikkula B, Serachitopol D, Price R, Cox D. Sources of variability in fluorescence spectroscopic measurements in a Phase II clinical trial of 850 patients. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S260-9.  (pdf)

  • Kneller JM, Ehlen T, Matisic JP, Miller D, Van Niekerk D, Lam WL, Marra M, Richards-Kortum R, Follen M, Macaulay C, Jones SJ. Using LongSAGE to Detect Biomarkers of Cervical Cancer Potentially Amenable to Optical Contrast Agent Labelling. Biomark Insights 2007;2:447-61.  (pdf)

  • Guillaud M, Richards-Kortum R, Follen M. Paradigm shift: a new breed of pathologist. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S46-9.  (pdf)

  • Guillaud M, Benedet JL, Follen M, Crain BT, MacAulay C. Scan-and-treat methodology using Azure A fast stain as a cost-effective cervical cancer screening alternative to visual inspection with acetic acid. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S256-9.  (pdf)

  • Freeberg JA, Serachitopol DM, McKinnon N, Price R, Atkinson EN, Cox DD, MacAulay C, Richards-Kortum R, Follen M, Pikkula B. Fluorescence and reflectance device variability throughout the progression of a phase II clinical trial to detect and screen for cervical neoplasia using a fiber optic probe. J Biomed Opt 2007;12:034015.  (pdf)

  • Freeberg JA, Benedet JL, West LA, Atkinson EN, MacAulay C, Follen M. The clinical effectiveness of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia: an analysis by phase of trial design. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S270-80.  (pdf)

  • Freeberg JA, Benedet JL, MacAulay C, West LA, Follen M. The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S248-55.  (pdf)

  • Follen M, Peek K, Crain BT. New pathways to educate future translational researchers: early education for undergraduates. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S50-5.  (pdf)

  • Davies KR, Cox DD, Swartz RJ, Cantor SB, Follen M. Inverse decision theory with applications to screening and diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S187-95.  (pdf)

  • Cong X, Cox DD, Cantor SB. Bayesian meta-analysis of Papanicolaou smear accuracy. Gynecol Oncol 2007; 107:S133-S137.  (pdf)

  • Collier T, Guillaud M, Follen M, Malpica A, Richards-Kortum R. Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer. J Biomed Opt 2007;12:024021.  (pdf)

  • Cardenas-Turanzas M, Freeberg JA, Benedet JL, Atkinson EN, Cox DD, Richards-Kortum R, MacAulay C, Follen M, Cantor SB. The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we? Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:S138-46.  (pdf)

  • Basen-Engquist K, Fouladi RT, Cantor SB, Shinn E, Sui D, Sharman M, Follen M. Patient assessment of tests to detect cervical cancer. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007;23:240-7.  (pdf)

  • Arifler D, Pavlova I, Gillenwater A, Richards-Kortum R. Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma. Biophys J 2007;92:3260-74.  (pdf)

  • Aaron J, Nitin N, Travis K, Kumar S, Collier T, Park SY, Jose-Yacaman M, Coghlan L, Follen M, Richards-Kortum R, Sokolov K. Plasmon resonance coupling of metal nanoparticles for molecular imaging of carcinogenesis in vivo. J Biomed Opt 2007;12:034007.  (pdf)
Click below for publications from 2006 and earlier.
Click below for publications from 2006 and earlier.
From 2007 - to date
NIH regulations stipulate that peer-reviewed publcations based on NIH grant-funded research must be made publically available.  The complete versions of the article citations below can be downloaded directly from this site (to access a particular article, please click "pdf" after the citation).  For entries without pdf links, we are working to post these articles.

(In the event that any provided links do not work, please contact us at dcsc@bccrc.ca.)
  • Zhu H, Vannucci M, Cox DD. A bayesian hierarchical model for classification with selection of functional predictors. Biometrics 2010;66:463-73.  (pdf)

  • Yamal JM, Cox D, Atkinson EN, MacAulay C, Price R, Follen M. Repeatability of tissue fluorescence measurements for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Biomed Opt Express 2010;1:641-57.  (pdf)

  • Okolo C, Franceschi S, Adewole I, Thomas JO, Follen M, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ, Clifford GM. Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria. Infect Agent Cancer 2010;5:24.  (pdf)

  • Lee JS, Cox DD. Robust Smoothing: Smoothing Parameter Selection and Applications to Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Comput Stat Data Anal 2010; 54:3131-3143.  (pdf)
  • Zhu H, Cox D. A Functional Generalized Linear Model with Curve Selection in Cervical Pre-cancer Diagnosis Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Optimality: The Third Erich L. Lehmann Symposium 2009;57:173-89.  (pdf)
  • Yamal JM, Zewdie GA, Cox DD, Atkinson EN, Cantor SB, MacAulay C, Davies K, Adewole I, Buys TP, Follen M. Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without colposcopic tissue information; a step toward automation for low resource settings. J Biomed Opt. 2012 Apr;17(4):047002. (pdf)

  • Shinn E, Qazi U, Gera S, Brodovsky J, Simpson J, Follen M, Basen-Engquist K, MacAulay C. Physician attitudes toward dissemination of optical spectroscopy devices for cervical cancer control: an industrial-academic collaborative study. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S67-S77.e6. (pdf)

  • Price E, Follen M. Drexel University and Drexel University College of Medicine: an overview of their commitment to women through education. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S83-5. (pdf)

  • Pham B, Rhodes H, Milbourne A, Adler-Storthz K, Follen M, Scheurer ME. Epidemiologic differentiation of diagnostic and screening populations for the assessment of cervical dysplasia using optical technologies. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S36-47. (pdf)

  • Montgomery K, Morse C, Smith-Glasgow ME, Posmontier B, Follen M. Promoting quality and safety in women's health through the use of transdisciplinary clinical simulation educational modules: methodology and a pilot trial. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S48-54. (pdf)

  • Montgomery O, Follen M, Urdaneta-Hartmann S. The 2010 annual 'Sex and Gender Research Forum' at Drexel University and Drexel University College of Medicine: an Institute for Women's Health and Leadership initiative. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S1-6. (pdf)

  • Li G, MacAulay C. Double Staining Cytologic Samples with Quantitative Feulgen- Thionin and Anti–Ki-67 Immunocytochemistry as a Method of Distinguishing Cells with Abnormal DNA Content from Normal Cycling Cells. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2012 Oct; 34(5): 273–284. (pdf)

  • Lane P, Lam S, Follen M, MacAulay C. Oral fluorescence imaging using 405-nm excitation, aiding the discrimination of cancers and crecancers by identifying changes in collagen and elastic breakdown and neovascularization in the underlying stroma. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S78-S82.e8. (pdf)

  • Lane P, Follen M, MacAulay C. Has fluorescence spectroscopy come of age? A case series of oral precancers and cancers using white light, fluorescent light at 405 nm, and reflected light at 545 nm using the Trimira Identafi 3000. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S25-35. (pdf)

  • Buys TP, Cantor SB, Guillaud M, Adler-Storthz K, Cox DD, Okolo C, Arulogon O, Oladepo O, Basen-Engquist K, Shinn E, Yamal JM, Beck JR, Scheurer ME, van Niekerk D, Malpica A, Matisic J, Staerkel G, Atkinson EN, Bidaut L, Lane P, Benedet JL, Miller D, Ehlen T, Price R, Adewole IF, MacAulay C, Follen M. Optical technologies and molecular imaging for cervical neoplasia: a program project update. Gend Med. 2012 Feb; 9(1 Suppl):S7-S24. (pdf)
  • Yamal JM, Follen M, Guillaud M, Cox DD. Classifying tissue samples from measurements on cells with within-class tissue sample heterogeneity. Biostatistics 2011; 12(4): 695-709. (pdf)

  • Cantor SB, Yamal JM, Guillaud M, Cox DD, Atkinson EN, Benedet JL, Miller D, Ehlen T, Matisic J, van Niekerk D, Bertrand M, Milbourne A, Rhodes H, Malpica A, Staerkel G, Nader-Eftekhari S, Adler-Storthz K, Scheurer ME, Basen-Engquist K, Shinn E, West LA, Vlastos AT, Tao X, Beck JR, MacAulay C, Follen M. Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Testing a device as an adjunct to colposcopy. Int J Cancer 2011;128:1151-68.  (pdf)
  • Luu HN, Adler-Storthz K, Dillon LM, Follen M, Scheurer ME. Comparing the Performance of Hybrid Capture II and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the Identification of Cervical Dysplasia in the Screening and Diagnostic Settings.  Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2013 Sep 25;7:247-55. doi: 10.4137/CMO.S12811. eCollection 2013. (pdf)

  • Montealegre JR, Follen M, Scheurer ME. Nativity Differences in Behaviors Associated with High-Risk HPV Infection Among Hispanic Women in Houston, Texas, USA. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Aug;15(4):836-41. (pdf)

  • El Hallani S, Poh CF, Macaulay CE, Follen M, Guillaud M, Lane P. Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions. Oral Oncol. 2013 Jun;49(6):582-90. (pdf)

  • Guillaud M, Buys TP, Carraro A, Korbelik J, Follen M, Scheurer M, Storthz KA, van Niekerk D, MacAulay CE. Evaluation of HPV infection and smoking status impacts on cell proliferation in epithelial layers of cervical neoplasia. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 11;9(9):e107088. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107088. eCollection 2014.  (pdf)

  • Scheurer ME, Danysh HE, Follen M, Lupo PJ. Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2014 Jun 13;13(1):52. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-52.  (pdf)

  • Whitehouse KC, Montealegre JR, Follen M, Scheurer ME, Aagaard K. Sociodemographic factors associated with pap test adherence and cervical dysplasia in surgically sterilized women. J Reprod Infertil. 2014 Apr;15(2):94-104.  (pdf)

  • Wang L, Lee JS, Lane P, Atkinson EN, Zuluaga A, Follen M, MacAulay C, Cox DD. A statistical model for removing inter-device differences in spectroscopy. Opt Express. 2014 Apr 7;22(7):7617-24. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.007617.  (pdf)

  • Arifler D, Macaulay C, Follen M, Guillaud M. Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths. Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Jan 15;5(2):485-98. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.000485. eCollection 2014 Feb 1. (pdf)

  • Li G, van Niekerk D, Miller D, Ehlen T, Garnis C, Follen M, Guillaud M, Macaulay C. Molecular fixative enables expression microarray analysis of microdissected clinical cervical specimens. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Apr;96(2):168-77. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2013.12.007. Epub 2014 Jan 8. (pdf)

  • Davies KR, Cantor SB, Cox DD, Follen M.  An alternative approach for estimating the accuracy of colposcopy in detecting cervical precancer.  PLoS One. 2015 May 11;10(5):e0126573. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126573. eCollection 2015.  PMID: 25962157. (pdf)

  • Nghiem VT, Davies KR, Beck JR, Follen M, MacAulay C, Guillaud M, Cantor SB.  Economic evaluation of DNA ploidy analysis vs liquid-based cytology for cervical screening.   British Journal of Cancer (2015) 112, 1951–1957. doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.95.  (pdf)

  • Yamal JM, Guillaud M, Atkinson EN, Follen M, MacAulay C, Cantor SB, Cox DD. Prediction using hierarchical data: Applications for automated detection of cervical cancer. Stat Anal Data Min.Volume 8, Issue 2, pages 65–74, April 2015.  (pdf)


  • Nghiem VT, Davies KR, Chan W, Mulla Z, Cantor SB.  Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women.  Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Jan; 26(1) 28-35. (pdf)

  • Nghiem VT, Davies KR, Beck JR, Follen M, Cantor SB. Overtreatment and cost-effectiveness of the see-and-treat strategy for managing cervical precancer.   Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2016; 25(5):1-8. (pdf)


  • Nghiem VT, Beck JR, Follen M, Cantor SB.  Economic evaluation of the Pap see-and-treat strategy for the management of cervical precancer.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  Submitted.